Printing Terms Dictionary

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Facsimile Transmission: (Fax) The process of scanning graphic images to convert them into electronic signals, alter and adjust these signals to correctly reproduce the original, then transmit these electronic signals to produce a recorded likeness of the original on a photo sensitive material.

FAQ: Frequently Asked Questions. A list of common qquestions with their answers, maintained by most special interest groups on the Internet as a way of lowering the frequency of basic technical questions.

Family Name: The name of a given font family.

Field: In a database, the individual items of related information, for example, policyholder's name, address, social security number, etc. Together the fields make up a record.

Field Separator: The prearranged code, typically a comma, that separates fields in a record. Also called a delimiter: "The records in the database are coma-delimited.

File: A document or application that has been given a name.

File Allocation Table (FAT): A table or list maintained by an operating system to keep track of the status of various segments of disk space used for file storage.

File Attribute: A characteristic of a file - for example, the read-only attribute.

File Format: The structure or arrangement of data stored in a file.

File Mapping: A method of supplying a filename to the outside world that does not reveal the complete internal file structures involved.

File Server: Local Area Networks (LANs) were invented to allow users on the LAN to share and thereby conserve the cost of peripherals (printers, modems, scanners) and to likewise share software. The file server is the machine on the LAN where the shared software is stored.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP): The standard method of transferring files using TCP/IP. FTP allows you to transfer files between dissimilar computers, with preservation of binary data, and optional translation of text file formats.

Fill: An electronic function that alters a selected area, usually within a closed line work image, with a color, gray tone, or pattern.

Film: A negative or positive, photographic or lithographic record made on a light sensitive material.

Filter: In color separations and photography, a colored piece of gelatin used over or between the lens to alter the hue, color or to correct for spectural imbalances.

Finger: A UNIX command that provides identification about Internet servers and user names.

Fixed-Width Font: A font in which all characters have uniform widths.

Fixing: Chemical action following development to remove unexposed silver halides, to make the image stable and insensitive to further exposure. It must be noted here that if inadequate washing is done after fixing it will accelerate the degeneration of the print or film quality more so than usually occur over a given length of time.

Flat: In offset lithography, the assembled composite of negatives or positives, mostly on mylar, orange vinyl, used for making further composites or platemaking. There are one set of flats for each color. Also, a photograph, transparency or halftone that is lacking in contrast.

Flat Bed: A flat bed optical input or output device (scanner or plotter) transfers images by means of a flat plane rather than a revolving cylinder.

Flat Etching: The chemical reduction of the silver deposit in a continuous tone or halftone negative, brought about by placing it in a tray containing etching solution (POTASSIUM FERACYANIDE).

Flop: Turning a negative over to create aa mirror image. In an electronic enviornment, flop or mirror is a function that creates a mirror image, either horizontally or vertically, of an image or a portion of an image.

Floppy Disk: A thin, flexible plastic disk which has been coated with iron oxide, capable of storing computer data as a magnetic pattern. Almost all programs are sold on floppy disks, which are also used as a convienent way of swapping data betwenn computers.

Focal Length: In photography, the distance from the center of the lens to the image of an object at infinity. At same size, the distance from copy to image is four times the focal length of the lens. This also applies to lithographic process lens as well.

Fog: In photography, density in a no image area.

Folio: A page number.

Footer: A design element that prints at the bottom of a page, often showing the publication's name and page number.

Font: A graphical design applied to all numerals, symbols and characters in the alphabet. A font usually comes in different sizes and provides different styles, such as bold, italic, and underlining for emphasizing text.

Foreground: The immediately accessible portion of the central processing unit (CPU), which has priority over any background functions in processing.

Form: An assembly of flats occupying a single side on a printing press.

Format: In photography, the size of the original which is being used to make separations. Smaller formats are 35mm and 2 1/2 square formats. Larger formats are 4x5 and larger. In printing, the size, style, type, page, margins, printing requirements, etc., of a printed piece.

Frame: A border, outlining and enhancing photos, type, or tint blocks, that has a specified thickness, style and color.

FreeHand: A computer illustration program developed by the former Aldus Corporation. Now developed by Adobe Corp.

Frequency: The lines per inch (lpi) in a halftone screen.

Friendly Name: A human readable named used to describe an network resource, as an alternative to the often cryptic computer, port and sharenames. As an example, "Laser Printer in Laurens Office," as opposed to "HP311PRT."

Front-End System: A workstation or group of workstations that provide one or more operators with the ability to interact with a large-scale computer system.

"F" Stops: In photography, fixed stops for setting lens apertures. The ability to control the amount of light as well as the sharpness of an image reaching the surface of the photographic film.

FTP: See File Transfer Protocol.

Full Duplex: A data communications scheme that permits simultaneous transmission in both directions.

Full-Page Display: A video monitor capable of showing an entire 8 1/2 X 11 inch page.