Printing Terms Dictionary

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Random Access Memory (RAM): The memory that is used to run applications and perform other necessary tasks while the computer is on. When the computer is turned off, all information in RAM is lost. When PC's were first introduced, they could address as much as 640K RAM. With the advent of X86 architecture and DOS upgrades, this barrier was broken and increased to 32Meg (32,000K) of RAM. Microsoft's Windows NT has promised to break this barrier and be able to address up to 32Gigs (32,000,000K) of RAM.

Random Proof: Also known as a loose-color proof or a scatter proof. A press proof or off-press which is made from just one image, to check its appearance before it is stripped into position with other images in a page layout.

Raster Display: The most common type of display terminal. Uses pixels in a column-and-row array to display text and images.

Raster Font: A font created as a graphic bitmap image. It is available only in a fixed size - not scaleable. A raster font is used mainly on the screen, but is also used by some dot-matrix printers and built into some laser printers.

Raster Image: An image displayed as a series of lines of dots or video "blips."

RC Paper: Resin-coated photographic paper used in photo typesetters for imager output.

Read: The process by which the central processing unit (CPU) of the computer is instructed to find specified data for display or output.

Reader's Spread: Two sequentially numbered pages of a document placed side-by-side for work of some sort to be carried out.

Real Time: Processing on a system which responds immediately to the user's instructions.

Red: An additive primary color the hue of which is created by overprinting equal parts of magenta and yellow which are primary subtractive printing colors.

Reflection Copy: In lithography, an illustration copy or photograph that is viewed and must be reproduced by reflecting light from the surface of such an original.

Refresh Rate: Measure of how often the image on a CRT is redrawn; often expressed in hertz. Typically 60 times per second, or 60 Hz in the United States.

Register: In printing and image assembly, the fitting of two or more images on the same exact spot either on paper or mylar thereby insuring exact alignment with each other.

Render: To interpret the contents of a document, image, or othher file so that it can be displayed or played back on a computer.

Repagination: The process used to change page numbers in multiple documents, while retaining a uniform format and proper numerical sequence.

Re-Screening Color Separations: In lithography, the ability to make a color separation from an original which has already been separated and published. There are limitations. Since the same basic screens and screen angles are used, it is necessary to slightly enlarge (104% or greater) or reduce (90% or smaller) in order to reduce or eliminate conflicting screen angles causing a moiré pattern. The further use of a sharp or unsharp masking controls and the use of selective focus may also be necessary.

Resolution: 1. Measure of imager output capability, usually expressed in dots per inch (dpi). 2. Measure of halftone quality, usually expressed in lines per inch (lpi).

Retouching (Color): The correction or deliberate manipulation of color, tone or detail in an original work of art, photograph or other original which needs correction. Note: retouching materials, especially in photography, must be specifically designed for use on photographic materials such as prints or transparencies. Often when incompatible materials are used, it becomes difficult if not impossible to reproduce a similar or exact color.

RGB: Red, Green, Blue. The primary colors, called "additive" colors, used by color monitor displays and TVs. The combination and intensities of these three colors can represent the whole spectrum.

Right Reading: Normal left-to-right image reproduction. Contrast with wrong reading.

RIP: Raster Image Processor, the hardware/software which converts data which has been stored in a computer into a series of lines of tiny dots which are output on film or photographic paper. In line work, the dots can be grouped to create solid areas.

ROM: Read Only Memory. Data stored in a medium that allows it to be accessed but not erased or altered.

Rosette Pattern: A screen dot pattern which is formed by printing two or more halftone screens over one another and which have a 30ø or more angle difference between them. Example: a 45 degree, a 75 degree and a 105 degree combination would yield a good three color rosette pattern without an objectionable pattern. When a screen which has less than a 30 degree angle is included, an objectionable pattern develops and can be seen (unless it is used in the yellow printer) this is called a moiré pattern.

Rotation: Tilting an image in response to customer requests or to align it with other page elements. Rotating an image that has been transformed into computer data is a time consuming and relatively expensive operation.

RRED: In lithography, Right Reading Emulsion Down. This means a film image that when plated would read correctly. Not always ideal since it requires intermediate films to be made during composite work.

RREU: In lithography, Right Reading Emulsion Up. This means film whose image would print wrong when plated. The image has been flopped when this is the case. The term RREU is generally used when ordering a color separation when a flopped image is required. (But watch for type and other images that would give it away.) For composite film work, many separations are scanned RREU in order to save the intermediate film required when doing contact film work E to E.

RTF: Rich Text Format. An export file format supported by many word processors and desktop publishing programs.

Rule: A vertical or horizontal straight line of specific thickness that is used to accent a design.

Runnability: The paper properties that affect the ability of the paper to run on the press. These properties also affect how the inks make contact to the paper, the rate of the absorbency, the trap and the hold out of the ink on paper combination.